• Richardson, D., Laurie, N., Poudel, M., Townsend, J. and Shakti Sumaha (forthcoming 2017) Participatory Citizenship, Gender and Human Trafficking in Nepal, in P. Beresford and S. Carr (eds.) Social Policy First Hand. Polity Press.
  • Richardson, D., Laurie, N., Poudel, M. and Townsend, J. (2016) ‘Women, Citizenship and Post-trafficking: The Case of Nepal’, The Sociological Review 64 (2): 329-348. OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having -or not having- citizenship. It does this through an examination of women’s access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the ‘new’ Nepal ‘post-conflict’. The analysis explores gendered and sexualised constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organise around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women. Building from this, the final section considers important implications of this analysis of post-trafficking experiences for debates about gender, sexuality and citizenship more broadly.

Laurie, N., Richardson, D., Poudel, M., and Townsend, J. (2015) ‘Post-Trafficking Bordering Practices: Marking and Stretching Borders’, Political Geography 48: 83-92. OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: This paper highlights the significance of post-trafficking scenarios for understanding bordering practices in political geography. While extensive research has addressed the related experiences of refugees, asylum seekers and ‘illegals’, much of this work has centred on policies, processes and practices that aim to keep ‘unwanted strangers out’. By contrast, very little research has addressed how the border is configured for and by those who are crossing-back over; those who are ‘returning home’, in this case from trafficking situations. The paper draws on recent empirical research on post-trafficking citizenship and livelihoods in Nepal, which examined how women returning from trafficking situations deal with stigma and marginalisation. Our analysis illuminates how bordering practices circumscribe and shape women’s lives in powerful ways as they seek to (re)establish a sense of belonging and respect, revealing a perverse biography of the border. We examine the interplay of state and non-state actors (national and transnational) in structuring mobility and anti-trafficking advocacy through a range of bordering practices and explore how the border is (co-)produced by varied actors at different border sites. This includes women returning from diverse trafficking situations, who invoke the border to argue that they are ‘not as trafficked’ as other women, and others who perform the border differently as agents for trafficking prevention.

Laurie, N., Richardson, D., Poudel, M., Shakti Samuha and Townsend, J. (2015) ‘Co-producing a Post-trafficking Agenda: Collaborating on Transforming Citizenship in Nepal’, Development in Practice 25 (4): 465-477. OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: In this article we discuss how a new agenda on post-trafficking is gaining momentum through academic and activist anti-trafficking collaborations focused on co-producing knowledge with women who have returned from trafficking situations. Co-production of this nature is important as the issues raised by post-trafficking scenarios are largely ignored in anti-trafficking strategies and the stigmatisation and poverty which women in these circumstances encounter means they rarely have a voice in policy making. Drawing on research in Nepal, we present four types of co-produced data around transforming citizenship post-trafficking and reflect on the strategies for generating and using them for advocacy purposes.

Townsend, J., Laurie, N., Poudel, M. and Richardson, D. (2015) ‘Gender, Trafficking and Citizenship in Nepal’, in A. Coles, L. Gray and J. Momsem (eds) Handbook of Gender and Development. London: Routledge, 319-330.



  • Laurie, N., Richardson, D., Poudel, M., and Townsend, J. (2015) ‘Post-Trafficking Bordering Practices: Marking and Stretching Borders’, Political Geography 48: 83-92.
  • Richardson, D., Laurie, N., Poudel, M. and Townsend, J. (2016) ‘Women and Citizenship Post-Trafficking: The Case of Nepal’, The Sociological Review 64(2): 329-348.

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