Gertrude Bell encountered many cultures and languages during her travels.  This is a glossary of technical terms and non-English words. We'll add to this glossary as we develop this project further. 


is " a female title of nobility and alternative to male "khan" prominently used in the First Turkic Empire and in the subsequent Mongol Empire. It is equivalent to "queen" or "empress" approximately." Further information can be found in the Wikipedia entry on khatun


also spelled "bakhsheesh" "Turkish bahşiş, from Persian بخشیش ‎(bakhšīš, “present; an honorary or pecuniary gratuity; drink-money”) orبخشش ‎(bakhšiš), from بخشیدن ‎(bakhšīdan, “to give, grant, bestow”)." 
Not necessaily money - there are numerous references to bakshish in the letters that describe food or other items being given. Further information can be found in the Wikipedia entry on bakhsheesh


unit of currency. At the time Iraq / Mesopotamia was using the Indian currency. There are 16 Annas to a Rupee. You can see some examples of this currency on Iraqi Stamps 'n' Coins.